Reloading describes the process when, after firing, an empty cartridge case is fitted with a new primer, powder and a bullet for a firearm. In the past, reloading was done for economic reasons, but today it is seen as a way of producing a cartridge that is optimally suited to the purpose and weapon.
All tools and components for reloading cartridge cases are freely available, but in Germany the purchase of propellant is subject to the Explosives Act and its strict control. A permit is required to purchase the propellant powder (usually nitrocellulose or black powder), for non-commercial use a permit according to § 27 of the Explosives Act, which is limited to 5 years and must then be renewed. Technical knowledge and general reliability are not sufficient for this.
In order to obtain this, attendance of a recognized course (prescribed duration of at least two days) with subsequent expert knowledge examination must be proven. Only those who have a clearance certificate in accordance with the Explosives Act may attend such a course.
This certificate is issued when the competent authority has checked the reliability of the applicant. For this purpose, the Federal Central Register and the Trade Register are usually inspected and information is obtained from the police and the public prosecutor's office. Pending investigations or criminal proceedings as well as corresponding entries in the certificate of good conduct are considered as reasons to doubt the harmlessness and to refuse the certificate.